03.11.2018 0 0
VI городская научно - практическая конференция школьников
«Первые шаги в науку - 2018»
МБОУ СОШ №2
Миграция. Анализ влияния иммиграционного кризиса на политический и экономический консонанс
стран ЕС и России
ученики 10-А класса
( Харламова Дарья,
учитель английского языка
Костенко Светлана Александровна
Municipal interdisciplinary scientific - practical conference
‘The first steps to science ’
Migration. Analyse the impact of the immigrant crisis on the EU's and Russia political coherence
By group of students: Bodan Tsyplakov,
Daria Kharlamova, Sergey Semenov
School 2, form 10-A
Section: English language
Module Leader: Svetlana Kostenko
Teacher of English
2.1 Types of migration………………….…………………….………8
2.2 Classification based on space……………………………………11
2.3 Religious beliefs…………………………………………………13
2.4 Political asylum………………………………………………….13
2.5 Economic aspects………………………………….…………….15
2.6 The immigrant crisis as a result of climate change……….……..18
2.7 The influence on the political situation of the EU………………19
2.8 The impact of migration in Russia…………………………....... 20
Nowadays, the immigrant crisis is the most significant topic not only on the territory of the European Union, but all over the world. For example, a new president of the United States of America, Donald Trump, pursues the policy forwarded to stop the flow of migrants from Mexico to the USA, and, at the same time, to get rid of those migrants, who already live in America without any purposes and reasons to stay here. As usual this 'coin' has two sides: heads and tails, where heads act as a positive statements and support for Trump's policy, and tails are showing the opposite side. However, the question is open. Another example is the immigrant crisis on the territory of the European Union, which started in 2015. The migration problem also affected Russia. Because of the complexity of human life and fast changing socio- economic conditions, human migration is gaining importance day by day. Basic factor that has influenced the mobility of man from one region to another was uneven distribution of population and resources, unbalanced utilization of resources and variation in economic and cultural developments. There were certain areas of habitation marked as „Centers of habitation" where people were attracted from various regions, countries, and continents. Different parts of the world, on the whole, have different types of mobility caused by various socio- economic conditions. And this mobility of man has either favorably or adversely influenced the socio- economic conditions of that area also. Scholars have tried to study the phenomenon of migration from various angles. From the point of view of interdisciplinary approach, very little work has been done on this aspect of social science. An attempt has been made in the field of human migration and interplay of demographic, economic, social, medical, and biological and many other factors to suggest a solution of this burning problem.
As per assumptions or beliefs, it is uneven distribution of population and
resources that has led to rapid growth of rural - urban migration. Other factors that contributed to this field were industrial growth, development of new territories, social change etc, that has led to the forcible migration of people from the places of their birth to different directions. Because of this
displacement people of different cultures, having different social life, occupational characteristics and different socio- political ideologies has caused social, economical, political and medical complexities.
Therefore, we need to understand correctly, what do the terms of «migration» and «immigrant crisis» mean? Why the European Union member states are worrying so much about this topic? What does the immigrant crisis have more: pros or cons? And what do the worldwide authorities, politicians and scientists think about such type of crisis? What are their perspectives and visions on the future rising or declining of the migration process?
Relevance of the topic.
The research is that, considering the migration policy, it is necessary to recognize that the socio-political conditions in which this sphere was formed undergo significant changes under the influence of an increasing number of factors.
The Migration Board now requires a permanent state presence and management of migration flows for the development, freedom and security of society. In the current socio-economic conditions of political life, it becomes evident that any state body successfully performs only its relatively narrow function.
Migration policy, like any other, needs regulatory and organizational support and isolation, which is due to objective social processes. It is about the migration policy of the state, whose goal is to manage social flows in the interests of society and the state. Migration policy is one of the independent activities of the state.
The object of the study is population migration.
The subject of the study is the migration policy, its social aspects, historically formed prerequisites for migration.
The purpose of the study is to consider the social aspects of migration policy.
Objectives of the study:
to consider the concept of population migration;
consider the social aspects of migration policy;
to study the historical and social aspects of migration policy
The research hypothesis includes provisions: the main reasons for migration are unfavorable conditions in the country, unemployment, interethnic conflicts, material difficulties in the country; The ways of preventing the growth of migration include the activities of the state.
Research methods: analysis of theoretical material, as well as a method of secondary analysis of sociological data.
The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the data obtained during the study were subjected to a secondary analysis.
Practical value consists in the possibility of using this material in the lessons of geography, and history, English.
2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
To make a situation clear and understandable, it is a perfect time to provide some definitions. The term migration by itself means the movement of people from one place or country to another, because of some reasons. When people migrate from a particular under developed region to a developed region, their place of origin undergoes positive as well as negative effects.
Positive effects include increase of share of land holdings, improvement in the economic condition and living condition by the construction of good house etc. At the same time, the social status of the family improves because of education and better social contacts. But the region which donates migrants experiences some setbacks i.e. shortage of labour is experienced, sometimes movement of young or working force restricts the proper growth of the region. It has been observed mostly that people receive their basic education (technical or general) at the place of their origin but they rarely serve the place of their origin.A completely different opinion exists regarding migrants from other countries.
The European refugee crisis is a name of notion which was given to a period of early 2015, when abnormous number of humans, who were living in the regions of East and South Europe, comprising Africa, Southern Asia and Western Asia, started to seek a shelter on the territory of the European Union (EU).The Majority of the oncomming refugees were Muslims or Sunni Muslims from Iraq, Syria and Afghan. In 2015, the European Union member states received more than 1.2 million of asylum applications, which is two times more than in 2014. Also the chaos, which brought a new wave of forthcoming fugitives, had a negative impact on everyday life of ordinary citizens of the EU. We can also say about the increase in the number of migrants in our country (Russia).
Newspapers, magazines, TV news, websites were overcrowded with a such titles as: «They are destroying our lives», «New wave of refugees, new pain for the nation», etc. At that time we could also observe the division of opinions in the European Union society into those, who openly hate fugitives and do not try to hide disrespect, antipathy and revulsion to them, and those, who defend refugees and claim that they are just simple people, who got into intricate situation connected with the wars, disease, poverty, terrorism, drought, environmental catastrophes, revolutions, and they destrive for a better life, and deserve it. But what are the reasons of such opposing sides and statements?
2.1 Types of migration
Interdisciplinary approaches of various scholars have brought into consideration various types of migration but most of them agree on the main types. Typology of migration has been influenced by space, time, volume, direction, cause, velocity, selectivity, stability, behaviour etc. Various types of migration have been suggested by scholars from time to time. First distinction ahs been made between migration and mobility. Here „mobility" represents movement within the boundaries whereas „migration" allows crossing of boundaries such as geographical, structural, and ethnic and others. Migration has been classified into invasion, conquest, colonization and immigration by Fairchild. Later on, Isaac modified the divisions of Fairchild as free (reasonable, nomadic, temporary and permanent) and forced (refugee, slave etc). weakness of Fairchild"s typology has been exposed by Peterson who has claimed that it is an implicit and incomplete crossing of two criteria i.e. peaceful-warlike and low culture- high culture. Peterson suggested a more complex typology based on two main criteria i.e. conservation-innovation and migratory force i.e. ecological push, political force, aspiration freely to find better conditions and social pressure exerted by a mass movement.
Typology suggested by Crane( tab.2.1.1) contains some slightly forced distinctions, between group migration and settlement but it has considerable value in pin pointing various kinds of migration and also various assimilation situations. Migration has been classified into five types by Gonzalez i.e. seasonal, temporary non-seasonal, re-current, continuous and permanent removal. A relationship has been established by her between recurrent migration and matrilocal household. According to Amin, migration of labour can be classified on the basis of the place of origin and that of place of destination i.e. it can be rural-rural, rural-urban, urban-urban and urban-rural. A scheme has been formulated by Gould and Prothero, to facilitate the study of mobility of population in an area undergoing rapid social and economic development or change and where major importance has been given to problems of rural and urban development and the interaction between the two of them. Space and time model has been taken by them as an essential dimension of its framework
According to Thomas( tab.2.1.2), immigration is a necessary condition for diffusion of skills particularly in developing countries as there is immense need of skilled personnel’s. There are refugees or the involuntary migrants in addition to voluntary international migrants. International refugees contain two main elements i.e. persons who have left their own nation and persons fleeing from one part to another, finding protection in national legal norms. Considering the motives and destinations of the emigrants, Douglass suggested three types of emigration:
a) Permanent emigrant
b) Sojourners and
c) Birds of passage
Among these types mentioned above, permanent immigrants never return to their place of origin, where as, sojourner"s are those emigrants who leave their native place for a long duration of time but do return to resume permanent residence before death and the birds of passage includes those individuals who keep on moving between the place of origin and place of their destination i.e. between village and the foreign area. While studying and reviewing the views of different scholars, it has been found that classification of migration is a multidimensional phenomenon and this phenomenon has been approached differently by different scholars. Like 130 geographers have emphasized on the phenomenon of space, sociologists have laid stress on social aspect of migrations, i.e. different scholars have viewed migration from their own distinct views. Time factor has also been taken into consideration to classify migration i.e. there is a class of seasonal migrants that migrate in a particular working season and return after that. Also there is one class of permanent migrants who once leave their place of origin never come back. In between these two types, there are various forms of migration ranging from a few months to a number of years. Certain people migrate for a short time but they finally settle down at the place of destination and never come back, at this point, classification based on time factor becomes complicated. Many a times the primary migration paves the way for permanent settlement. Migration can also be commonly classified by taking into consideration the environments of origin and that of destination. According to Zelinsky, there are four types of migration i.e.
a) Rural - Urban
b) Interurban - Suburban
c) Frontier ward migration
And he also provided a set of generalized terms that can be applied to most flows of migration with some profits in terms of description. But this classification ignored the two way process of migration.
Migration can also be classified on the basis of reasons behind it and likewise it can be named as “Economic migration”, “Retirement migration”, or “Educational migration”. The most common reason from migrating from the place of origin, still considered, is economic backwardness. Migration has also been divided into two broad categories on the basis of duration and spatial course, into two broad categories, by Kant. His classification is as follows:
a) Accidental or temporary
b) Permanent or periodical
c) Definitive migration.
Keeping in mind all the classifications of migration, important types based on different parameters are as follows the spatial classification of migration.
2.2 Classification based on space
Phenomenon of movement of people from one geographical location to another location is called spatial migration. Geographical area differs from village level to continent level. This movement related to space can be divided onto following types:
Inter state migration
Rural- Rural migration
Rural - Urban migration
Urban - Urban migration
Urban - Rural migration
Inter continental migration: when movement of people is from one continent into another continent, this type of movement is known as inter continental migration. Further this type of migration was prevalent during 17th to early 20th century. Initially it took place from cradle land of Asia to other continents, but, later on, people moved from European countries to other countries in the process of colonization.
International migration: when movement of people happens to cross international borders then it is called international migration. Earlier people used to move freely across the borders because there was no demarcation. This demarcation became a restrictive force in free movement of people. Even then people have migrated from one country and settled permanently in other country. For example: Chinese have migrated permanently to Vietnam and Indonesia.
Inter state migration: a phenomenon in which people migrate from one province to another is known as inter state migration. This type of migration is very common throughout the world because of favourable laws. All countries in the world have allowed their citizens to move, work and settle from one state to another within the country. Inter state migration is very common in India among Punjabi"s, Kashmiri"s, Rajasthani"s etc.
Local migration: when people move for a short distance that phenomenon is called local migration. It is of various types i.e. inter village, inter district and intra district. This type of migration is preferred by majority of people as they remain aware of the living conditions and job opportunities of the place of destination.
Rural- rural migration: when the people move from one rural are to another rural area, it is known as rural- rural migration. This type of migration usually occurs in developing countries because in these countries either most of the people live in rural areas or there is imbalanced distribution of resources. People here prefer to move to places which are agriculturally more developed.
Rural- Urban migration: when people migrate from agrarian economy to non-agrarian economy then that type of migration is known as rural-urban migration. In urban areas there are lots of opportunities of white collar jobs, luxurious life and modern amenities and it is because of these above mentioned properties that people prefer to migrate from rural areas which are sometimes devoid of even basic requirements. This phenomenon of rural urban migration has become very common in developing countries and this drift is causing lots of problems to both area of origin as well as area of destination.
Urban-Urban migration: it can be defined as movement of people from one urban area to another urban area. This is similar to rural urban migration because here people move from smaller urbanized towns to major urban centers. At times this drift is caused because of transfer and posting also.
Urban- Rural migration: when urbanites move to rural areas then that phenomenon is known as urban rural migration. This is not common practice. This happens when people get disgusted with the industrial and very busy schedule of urban life and want to move in search of peace.
We have now studied different types of migrations from all angles and all possibilities. Now we shall focus on the factors motivating Inter continental migration, International migration , Inter state migration .These factors can be looked upon from various angles and perspectives.
2.3 Religious beliefs
The first point of the analyze is: Migration as the basic cause of religious beliefs. Disagreements on the basis of religious aspects hampered to find the understanding between both sides’ visions. “Christians have a unique perspective because Jesus was a refugee. So was Abraham. So was Joseph. So was Moses… God has used migration for millennia to achieve His purposes for His people.”(Johnstone, 2016) A huge number of scientists renounce the concept of religious wars and consider them absolutely absurd and groundless. Nevertheless, a strong confirmation of the same idea is the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), in which it is written that all human beings across the whole world are equal and free in dignity and rights, and have the same privileges to believe in God/Allah/Buddha/etc. or not to believe. These rights are secured by the United Nations Organization. Despite the fact that the migration based on religious beliefs is a very rare phenomenon of the modern XXI century, still it does exist.
2.4 Political asylum
The second point is: The right of political asylum, its importance and the role. The term of the right of asylum (simply political shelter) came to us from ancient times and it means that if a person was pursued by his (her) homeland, he or she may be safeguarded by another sovereign state or church. The significance of the right of asylum is very high and more often to happen in the modern society. For example, the fourth Ukrainian president, Victor Yanukovych (2010-2014), who was forced to leave his position as a result of Ukrainian revolution (November 21, 2013 – February 23, 2014), and because of prosecution for high treason. He was also compelled to leave the territory of Ukraine and ask for a political asylum in Russia Federation. That is why he still did not bear any type of punishment, because he is protected by Russian authorities and law, and Ukrainian representatives have no power there. Therefore, in a major part, people perceive the political shelter as a phenomenon of world’s weakness, because in their way of thinking it means that you can commit a crime, move to another sovereign country, ask them for protection, and not be punished. At the same time, as I mentioned before, in 2015 the EU members admitted more then 1.2 million of asylum applications. But the question is: why? Maybe, because of their human kindness, or someone miscalculated losses, or a profit from this situation is much bigger than the loss?
The policy of states influences the occurrence of migration among the world's population and cannot be ignored while studying migration( tab.2.4.1). It plays an important role in motivating people to migrate from one region to another. Histogenic accounts of different countries reveal several incidences of human migration based on political grounds. Because of political restrictions migrants of different countries were prohibited to settle in Australia, due to this reason it is still sparsely populated. Likewise, many other developed nations have put restrictions by changing immigration laws and prohibited mass movement of people. In certain countries migrants are not treated at par with their own citizens. Even if the government tries to facilitate migrants the local people of that area force these migrants to leave their countries. People have moved from one time to time from one region to the other in forms of refugee, political asylums etc at the times of international wars and treaties. World War I and its after effects caused large scale migration. The population transfer between India and Pakistan after partition is an ideal example of political effect on migration.
2.5 Economic aspects
The third point in the analyzing essay is economic aspects. Immigrant crisis is also very dangerous according to economic purposes. It is not the hidden information that all citizens, who live on the territory of the European Union must necessarily pay taxes to the government. Then such payments are divided into some groups: agricultural taxes, customs duties, VAT (interest deductions), income tax from individuals and legal entities operating in the European Union apparatus. The amounts of money, paid by the people legally working and earning it, should be spend on the essentials of the EU society, but not just on the needs of upcoming fugitives.
Most Central Asian labour migrants in Russia live in precarious conditions. In 2015, Russia granted work permit and work licences (patents) for 1,887,034 foreign citizens, most of which came from the CIS countries of Uzbekistan (899,864), Tajikistan (445,652), Ukraine (209,840) and Moldova (99,835). The largest groups of non-CIS migrants were Chinese (51,701), North Koreans (30,757), Turkish (20,414), and Vietnamese (12,522) (Ryazantsev, Manshin, 2016). However, these figures make only a small share of the total estimated 10 million foreign citizens residing and working in the country. Within this overall context, we can observe three interrelated developments in Russian society that have a significant impact on ‘migrant homes’ in contemporary Russia: (1) The changing economic and political realities of the Russian society, (2) Three-tier migration policies and tightening migration control, and (3) Psychological and cultural exhaustion for migration. Connected to the global economic decline, the geopolitically inspired sanction policy and the structural challenges in the Russian economy, especially the changing value of both rouble and oil, many companies are in trouble. As the value of the Rouble mirrored almost perfectly the value of oil, the most important export item of the Russian economy, the sharp fall in the price of oil from about USD100 per barrel in mid-2014 to USD40 in early 2015 was directly reflected in the value of the rouble. During the ‘economic crisis’ the ruble price of the dollar has approximately doubled1 . Consequently, the state budget is heavily in deficit and subsidised from state reserves. Despite a rapid decrease in ability to travel and buy foreign goods, the domestic purchasing power had declined relatively little, by about 10% (ibid.). Officially, the unemployment is still not more than 5.6 percent (much higher in real life) but significantly lower investment (–7.6%), tightening consumption (–9.6%) and retail sales (–9.7%) put a record number of companies to adapt their performance to the new economic realities2 . The main sectors of migrant labour market, services and construction, were among the sectors facing the decrease heaviest, which increased the already tight competition and restructuring of the ‘migrant labour market’ as well. Related to the strong prevalence of shadow economy in Russia, almost every sector of the Russian economy makes use of the migrant labour. In many cases migrants conduct the work, unofficially and for smaller salaries, that are officially carried out by locals (Ryazantsev, 2016). This practice, consequently, gives migrants access to paid work but a lower salaries than locals. It also supports diverse structures of exploitation, violation of workers’ rights and inequality that all contribute to a certain feelings of inferiority among migrants. In order to reduce the so-called ‘illegal migration’ (or actually illegal work) in the Russian Federation, the Federal Migration Service (FMS) and the Police tightened their approach to migration in 2013. They increased the number of identification, document checks and arrests in construction sites, factories, markets, restaurants and other possible locations with migrants, which in many cases lead to rapid deportations and administrative re-entry bans. According to Director Konstantin Romodanovskiy from the Federal Migration Service, the aim of these was to reduce criminality and make ‘illegal migration’ legal (Gritsjuk M., 2015). He estimates that in the end of 2014 there were approximately 1.7 million foreign citizens who had exceeded the visa free limit by half a year, and about a million who have exceeded that for over a year. This, of course, means that there are over a million foreign citizens in Russia who live under a constant pressure of getting caught and being deported. In 2014, illegal work, illegal stay, criminal offences and other causes lead to the deportation of 129,034 foreign citizens. In addition to that, Russian authorities issued a so-called re-entry ban for up to 675,950 persons as an administrative procedure (Kazmierkiewicz P., 2016)1 . These were based on different administrative violations such as jaywalk and parking fines. According to Kluczewska (Kluczewska K., 2014), “the mechanism of re-entry bans was created because for the Russian authorities it would be technically impossible and not cost-effective to identify and deport all foreign nationals who committed irregularities on the territory of the Russian Federation”. However, due to the administrative character and decentralized management of the ban, many of the migrants were never informed by any of the eleven authorities involved. This has naturally led to inconvenient situations at the Russian airports and border crossing points upon arrival. To avoid such situations, the Migration Service has established an internet based system through which migrants can before buying the ticket check if he/she is eligible to enter the country. The impact of deportations and up to 10-year re-entry bans can mainly be felt in home and neighbouring countries in Central Asia. There are an increased number of people who are not only able to access Russia to provide income for their families in terms of remittances.
However, according to the Eurostat data base, the most attractive country for refugees is Germany, first of all from a mercantile point of view. Till the year 2012, the allowance for fugitives here was 225 euros per month, but soon German Constitutional Court decided that this amount of money is not enough to guarantee a dignified human existence on the territory of the country and the payment increased to 336 euros per month. Concerning other countries of the European Union: in the United Kingdom of Great Britain the disbursement compile 36 pounds (almost equal to 210 euros per month for one human), in France – 300 euros, in Sweden – from 60 to 225 euros, in Greece – 60 euros, in Romania – 72 euros per month, etc. Also we need to underline that despite of such payments, the EU member states also guarantee accommodation and nutrition for refugees, and some countries even propose free medical treatment, education, the right to work and use privileges for public transport.
Taking into consideration the fact that in last months of 2015, more than 100 000 fugitives crossed the borders of Germany (this number is almost equal to the population of a small town), we are able to calculate that per one month German government paid out more than 33 600 000 euros. In the result, the New Year’s night in Cologne (a town in the western part of Germany) brought to the police more than 800 applications from the women, who were sexually harassed by men of Arab appearance. Therefore, the statement is clear: a great part of migrants are not able to appreciate, what the EU member states give to them.
2.6 The immigrant crisis as a result of climate change
Modern migration crisis is discerned in the context of the wars and conflicts in the Middle East and aggravating global economic and political troubles. These are the most significant causes resulting in crowding out of substantial number of people, with whom the Old Continent cannot cope with. All intentions and purposes, reasons are much more sophisticated. In many cases, it is the result of changes in human environment, usually determined as climate change. Frequently, it is treated as a serious durable appearance, which is progressive and scarcely noticed for one generation.
Nevertheless, in the media sphere, there are marked almost exceptionally the effective and meaningful ones, such as droughts and floods. All of them “manufacture” millions of people, who need to move to another country and build a new life. The scope of this fact exceeds the previous forecasts, and this situation is aimed simply at human beings sensetive to the troubles of other citizens. An efficient decision in the sphere of material help is granted neither by the international law nor global community.
Climate change and more or less connected with the notable extremeness weather appearance is seen in almost all countries of the world. It leads to the formation of frequent occurrence adverse conditions. The outcome of these weather problems is the migration of people. The great displacement may lead to public contradictions or even the armed conflicts. It can be confirmed in real life. There is an assumption, that a few years of drought in the Middle East caused to begining of the revolution in Syria, and consequently to the immigration crisis in Europe. Formerly prolific ground, because of the lack of rains and insufficient level of groundwater became less effective. This situation led to the escape of thousands of people from the villages to the cities in order to look for a better job. They united with a large number of citizens, who were living in poor suburbs of big towns, where, considering previous refugees from Iraq, to find a job was extremely difficult. Due to the hard times, it started to be a period for social conflicts and pressures. Protests and strikes were rapidly escalated into civil wars, which ruined so many cities. People abandoned their previous lives and started to look for a better future in Europe.
The consequences (at least some of them) of the great movement of humans, partly we already know. Much more complex and more complicated are reasons of such events. Sometimes they are predictable and well-known, sometimes - treating faraway future and only probable, sometimes they are to some extent provoked by the economic activity of people. The rest is made by the nature itself. Here, a human being cannot do much – only bear the consequences and find the way to survive.
2.7 The influence on the political situation of the European Union
The immigrant crisis from one point of view leads to the complete political coherence in the actions of all the European Union member states. When the conflicts in Iran and Iraq became hazardous and the revolution in Syria started to be uncontrollable, the European Parliament decided to open the borders for people, who were deprived of protection in their native cities and countries, for those who ceased to exist on the rights of a normal member of the world society, and simply try to survive in the chaos and cruelty on their homeland (tab2.7.1). The European Union decision was to guarantee safeguard, haven and all conditions for a standard human life. At the beginning of migrant’s movement, the most favorable countries for refugees were Germany and Sweden and at first time it was under control of the European Union Parliament. In a few month such kindly movement increased into a huge tragedy for the whole Europe. From the political point of view it brought some tension, especially conflict between Germany and Greece based on accusations of the German Chancellor, Angela Merkel in the fact that Greece is not capable of carefully guarding the borders of its country and it leads to the situation of illegal crossings of the custom borders. Thus, the European Parliament demanded to strengthen patrolling and precautionary measures on the territory of Greece. Otherwise it will be excluded from the European Union( The map of the global diversification of migration destination presents on the App.3) At the same time, we are able to understand such critical position of Germany, because of the increasing amount of fugitives on its territory and a great number of problems and crimes committed by Arabic fugitives (especially men). The reason for such love of Europe from refugees is quite understandable: a high standard of living. For many of them it is a good opportunity to leave the warzone, settle in a prosperous Europe, receive payments, accommodation and food from the government, and at the same time do nothing - the ultimate dream, but for the European countries, from a political and economic point of view, such behavior of Muslim fugitives turned out to be an unbearable burden.
2.8 The impact of migration in Russia
In this point of the paper we will consider the influence of migration processes on the economy, politics and demography of our country in
context of the current situation in Russia, taking into account historical statistics and new features of development in the XXI century.
Already in ancient times, the peoples of different peoples migrated to Russia.
The Muscovite state took measures to attract qualified migrants, including military specialists, engineers, physicians. Moreover, starting from the second half of the 18th century a deliberate policy of engaging foreigners was realized in Russia. Along with that, the scales of international migration were insignificant over the major period of Russian history, and international migration was never a crucial factor of demographic development in Russia until the late 1990s. Due to the contribution of international migration to the population increase in Russia in the second half of the 20th century – the early 21st century we can single out three periods for convenience:
1. The second half of the 18th century – the 1890s: a positive international migration balance, the migrants' flow contributed to a certain population increase in Russia.
2. The 1890s - the mid-1970s (with the exception of 1927-1940.: negative
balance of international migration, the overall decline in migration exceeded 10 million persons in the years 1890-1975.
3. Mid-1970s - up to the present: the international balance of migration
again positively, net migration in 1975-2017 exceeded 15.5 million people.
In modern Russia, which suffers from a demographic crisis, the international population migration has acquired special significance and has become an important factor in its demographic development.
The demographic advantage of immigration to Russia lies in the fact that
demographic crisis, international migration has become the only source for replenishment the population of Russia(table 2.8.1). Net migration for 1992-2017 exceeded the 15.5 million people and "smoothed out" the natural loss of the Russian population by almost 45 percent. At the same time, during this entire time only at the "peak" of 1994 the scale of migration .It was enough not only to compensate for natural losses, but also to ensure population growth in Russia.
The contribution of net migration to the change in the population of Russia has been steadily declining until 2003 (55 percent in 1992-1997, 16 percent in 1998-2004 and 35 percent in the 1992-2004). The increase in net migration in 2004-2008 And the decline in natural losses slowed down decrease in the population in Russia. In 2008, natural losses were replaced by 71 percent on net migration (in 2007 - up to 54.9 percent, in 2006 - up to 22.6 percent).
Due to the increase in the birth rate and the reduction in mortality in August 2009, Russia recorded. The population naturally increased by 1050 people for the first time since 1992.
At the end of the year, the migration increase completely compensated for natural losses population for the first time since 1994.These data clearly show that Russia is becoming increasingly dependent on the influx of international migrants in order to compensate for natural losses of the population as well as to replenish certain niches of the national labor market and, accordingly, reduce the rate of the demographic burden (which inevitably increases because of the birth rate
At the same time, it is important to note that international migration in Russia is not only provides compensation for natural population decline, but also contributes to population structure change: migrants are younger. In addition, we must take into account the demographic policy of encouraging large families (large families).The age structure of immigrants is younger (in comparison with the Russian population composition). In 2016, almost 75 percent of immigrants were of working age, whereas, in Russia, this indicator, as a rule, is 61 percent.
As for the Russian migration policy, on the one hand, over the period of 1991–2017 a certain legal framework of international migration management was formed(tab. 2.8.2).
On the other hand, in Russia migration is not yet considered a positive phenomenon. The state'stop authorities proclaim (particularly, in the President's messages to the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation) the thesis of the necessity for a reasonable immigration policy as well as compatriots and qualified workers intake. At the same time, the executive authorities practice a strict approach and treat migration (both legal and illegal) as a threat to national security. Ambiguous attitude to migration (especially of Russophones from CIS-countries and the Baltic states) as well as incomprehension of basic patterns of international migration make for the absence of the Federal Conception of Migration Policy. Unfortunately, there are no strategic conceptions in this sphere. The demographic crisis and shortages of skilled workers for blue-collar jobs make external labour migrants indispensable for Russian companies. The effects of external labour migration are unclear since they have some positive aspects but they can also threaten the country’s economic security.
Therefore, it is important to reduce the negative influence of labour migration by training more Russian workers and focusing on internal labour migration.
We have analyzed the impact of external labour migration on Russia and its economy, which led us to the following conclusions:
1. The driving force of migration is the need for financial, material, natural, educational and cultural resources as well as for safe and healthy living environment.
2. Firstly, it would be beneficial for Russia to introduce tighter migration rules in order to encourage migrants to learn the Russian language, get acquainted with the local culture and traditions, and know the laws of their host country.
3. Secondly, migration can contribute to the rejuvenation of the Russian population. The number of young migrants (under 18) increased from 7.4 % in 2011 to 15.1 % in 2016. They were either born in Russia or brought to the country at a very young age, which shows that migrants find conditions in
Russia favourable for giving birth and bringing up their children, who may become Russian citizens in the future.
4. Thirdly, migrants contribute to the federal budget by paying for state services. For example,in 2016 the volume of such budget revenues was 55.4 million roubles or 28 % of the total volume of all revenues in the five-year period between 2011 and 2015, including the revenue from issuing work patents (71001.8 mln roubles). The overall amount of administrative fines imposed on foreign migrants for breaking migration rules was 34.06 mln roubles in 2015, which is by 42.3 % more than in the previous year.
5. Fourthly, Russia benefits from direct investments into its economy. From 2007 to October 2015 it received 6,923 mln US dollars of direct investments. The top investors are China with its 3,364 mln roubles or 48.6 % of the total volume of investments and Kazakhstan with 1,446 mln dollars or 20.9 %.
Proceeding from the above, we believe that modern Russia needs to pay special attention to the development of policies in the field of migration. The basis of politics should be the concept of migration as a common good, not a catastrophe.
In conclusion, summarizing all arguments, aspects, stereotypes and facts we can underline that the topic of the immigrant crisis is extremely significant, but at the same time it is exceedingly provoking and hard to understand. The first point is religious beliefs, which are based on the human unpreparedness to see the real world, without pink sun-glasses and stereotypes such as the division on unfaithful and faithful people. The second point is political asylum, which, on the one side seems to be completely reasonable, but on another side is entirely senseless. The third point brought to us an understanding of the cost of upcoming fugitives for the European Union member states. The fourth point led us to the fact that the immigrant crisis grew up not only because of the wars and conflicts on the Middle East, Ukraine and others, but also because of the climate changes. And the last point, but not less important is the influence of the migrants crisis on the political situation of the European Union, which opens the brackets of the stereotype that such crisis is more positive than negative, and shows us more realistic point of view, such as the conflict between Germany and Greece, or the crimes committed in Sweden, France, Germany, etc. Therefore the conclusion is pretty clear, the influence of the immigrant crisis on the European Union’s political coherence is 70% negative, 25% positive and for 5% neutral; in Russia: to ensure that the government restricts the flow of labor migrants, 58% of respondents expressed their opinion, only 6% expressed the opposite opinion, as hard to answer, and the remaining 30% said they did not care.
Thus, the reluctance to accept labor migrants on average in Russia is more than 50 percent, and in Moscow migrant phobia is completely off scale - 74% are immediately in favor of restrictions.
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4. Clemens M., 2014. Does Development Reduce Migration? London, the UK: Centre for Global Development.
5. Davidson A., 2015. Migration in the age of genocide: Law, Forgiveness and Revenge. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing Switzerland, pp. 5-33 6. Directorate-General for Communication (European Commission), 2017. The EU and the migration crisis. Media release, 11 October 2017, http://publications.europa.eu/webpub/com/factsheets/migration-crisis/en/ , viewed 29 November 2017.
7. Draft Committee of the United Nations, 1948. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Paris, France: The United Nations General Assembly, art.1-5.
8. Johnstone P., and Merill D., 2016. Serving God in a Migrant Crisis: Ministry to People on the Move (Engaging Challenges Facing the Global Church). The USA: MD Publishing, England: Global Mapping International, pp. 15-89.
9. Zetter R., 2015. Protection in Crisis: Forced Migration and Protection in a Global Era. Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.
10. Kazmierkiewicz P. (2016). Migrant Vulnerabilities and Integration Needs in Central Asia: Root Causes, Social and Economic Impact of Return Migration — Regional Field Assessment in Central Asia 2016. Astana: International Organization for Migration (IOM)
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12.Kosmarskaya N., Savin I. (2016). Everyday nationalism in Russia in European context: Moscow residents’ perceptions of ethnic minority migrants and migration / In: Kolstш P., Blakkisrud H. (eds.). The New Russian Nationalism: “Imperialism, Ethnicity and Authoritarianism 2000—2015”. Edinburgh: Oxford University Press. Pp. 132—15 .
13. Luhn A. Why are migrants fleeing Moscow? Guardian. 08.06.2015. [Electronic Resource]. Access Mode: https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2015/jun/08/why-migrants-fleeing-moscow-permitseconomy
14.Noble G. (2005). The Discomfort of Strangers: Racism, Incivility and Ontological Security in a Relaxed and Comfortable Nation. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 26:1. Pp. 107—120. 6. Peshkova V. (2015). Migrant Infrastructure in Russian Cities: the Case of Labour Migrants from Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan in Moscow // Mir Rossii. Vol. 24, 2. Pp. 129—151. (in Russian)
15.Ralph D., Staheli L.A. (2011). Home and Migration: Mobilities, Belongings and Identities. Geography Compass, 5/7. Pp. 517—530.
16.Rocheva A. (2014). “A Swarm of Migrants in our Maternity Clinics!”: The Study of Stratified Reproduction Regime in the Case of Kyrgyz Migrants in Moscow // The Journal of Social Policy Studies. Vol. 12. No. 3. Pp. 367—380. (in Russ)
17. Ryazantsev S. Labour Migration from Central Asia to Russia in the Context of the Economic Crisis. Russia in Global Affairs. [Electronic Resource]. Access mode: http://eng.globalaffairs.ru/valday/ Labour-Migration-from-Central-Asia-to-Russia-in-the-Context-of-the-Economic-Crisis-18334
18.Ryazantsev S., Manshin R. (2016). Special features of the adaptation of migrant workers from Asian countries in the Russian economy // Central Asia and Caucasus. Vol. 17. Issue 4. P. 95—103.
19.Strazds A., Grennes T. The Russian Economic Crisis: How Severe and How Long? Economonitor. 17.5.2016. [Electronic Resource]. Access Mode: https://shar.es/187ycx
20.Tursunbekova A. Kyrgyzstan: Videos Abound of ‘Patriotic’ Attacks on Migrant Women in Russia. Global Voices, 16.6.2012. [Electronic Resource]. Access Mode: https://globalvoices. org/2012/06/16/kyrgyzstan-patriotic-attacks-against-migrant-women-fuel-outrage/
Table 2.1.1 Crane’s suggestion
Class of migration
flight from land
According to Thomas model
Table 2.7.1 The map of migration
The top countries sending migrants to Russia
Breakdown of external migrants to Russia according to their motivations
На реферативно- исследовательскую работу
учеников 10 класса : «Миграция. Анализ влияния иммиграционного кризиса на политический и экономический консонанс стран ЕС и России »
Представленная работа выполнена на интересную и актуальную тему —анализ влияния иммиграционного кризиса на политическую и экономическую согласованность стран ЕС и России и принадлежит к разряду знаний, которые высоко востребованы в современном мире.
Принимая во внимание обширность и многогранность избранной проблематики, учащиеся разумно ограничивают исследование рамками необходимыми для изучения данной темы , уделяя особое внимание деловому английскому языку, и определяют уровень знаний целевой аудитории как продвинутый этап обучения.
В соответствии с формулировкой темы, определяют предмет и объекты исследования, а также ставят перед собой ряд адекватных теме задач. Их решение находит отражение в структуре работы и её содержании.
Работа состоит из основной части, текст которой последовательно и в полной мере раскрывает заявленную тему. Он базируется на научных источниках информации (24 источника) и затрагивает, в частности, наиболее важные вопросы, как: виды миграции, классификация на основе пространственного разрешения, религиозных убеждений, политических убеждений, экономических аспектов, кризис иммигрантов в результате изменения климата, влияние миграции на политическую ситуацию в ЕС и влияние миграции на политическую, демографическую и экономическую ситуации в России. Также в исследовании дана четкая структура, в соответствии со спецификой обозначенной сферы. Работа сложная, так как требует изучения и рассмотрения данной проблемы с разных сторон и глубокого понимания сути проблемы, что значительно усложняет изложение ее на английском языке. Актуальность темы заключается в том, что, рассматривая миграционную политику, необходимо признать, что социально-политические условия, в которых формировалась эта сфера, претерпевают существенные изменения под влиянием все большего числа факторов.
В настоящее время миграционный Совет требует постоянного государственного присутствия и управления миграционными потоками для развития, свободы и безопасности общества. В современных социально-экономических условиях политической жизни становится очевидным, что любой государственный орган успешно выполняет только свою относительно узкую функцию. Нисходящая миграционная политика, как и любая другая, нуждается в нормативно-организационной поддержке и изоляции, что обусловлено объективными социальными процессами. Речь идет о миграционной политике государства, целью которого является управление социальными потоками в интересах общества и государства. Миграционная политика является одним из самостоятельных направлений деятельности государства. Объектом исследования является миграция населения. Предметом исследования является миграционная политика, ее социальные аспекты, исторически сформировавшиеся предпосылки для миграции. Целью исследования является рассмотрение социальных и исторических аспектов, концепции миграционной политики.
Гипотеза исследования включает положения: 1) основных причин миграции, которыми являются неблагоприятные условия в стране, безработица, межнациональные конфликты, материальные трудности в стране; 2)пути предотвращения роста миграции, которые включают в себя деятельность государства. Методы исследования - это анализ теоретического материала, а также метод вторичного анализа социологических данных.
Научная новизна работы заключается в том, что данные, полученные в ходе исследования, подвергались вторичному анализу.
Практическая ценность заключается в возможности использования этого материала на уроках географии, истории и английского языка( как изучение языка современной диалектической трансформации языка под влиянием кризиса мигрантов).
Работа состоит из всех необходимых структурных компонентов (введение, заключение, библиографии, выводов по главам, приложений) и представляет собой анализ и обобщение как теоретических, так и практических аспектов проблемы. К её достоинствам можно отнести следующее: материал всех частей работы логично выстроен, его изложение подчинено избранной теме и задачам исследования, детально изложена методика, позволяющая расширить и улучшить качество знаний в данной сфере. Так в ходе работы и анализа учащиеся пришли к следующим выводам:
1. Влияние внешней трудовой миграции на Россию и ее экономику .
2. Во-первых, для России было бы полезно ввести более жесткие миграционные правила, чтобы стимулировать мигрантов к изучению русского языка, знакомству с местной культурой и традициями, а также знакомству с законами принимающей страны.
3. Во-вторых, миграция может способствовать омоложению населения России. Количество молодых мигрантов (до 18 лет) увеличился с 7,4 % в 2011 году до 15,1 % в 2016 году. Они либо родились в России, либо были привезены в страну в очень юном возрасте, что свидетельствует о том, что мигранты находят Россию страной,которая благоприятствует рождению и воспитанию детей, которые в будущем могут стать гражданами России.
4. В-третьих, мигранты вносят вклад в федеральный бюджет, оплачивая государственные услуги. Например, в 2016 году объем таких доходов бюджета составил 55,4 млн рублей или 28 % от общего объема всех доходов за пятилетний период с 2011 по 2016 год, включая доходы от выдачи патентов на производство работ (71001,8 млн рублей). Общий размер административных штрафов, наложенных на иностранных мигрантов за нарушение миграционных правил, в 2015 году составил 34,06 млн рублей, что на 42,3% больше, чем в предыдущем году.
5. В-четвертых, Россия получает выгоду от прямых инвестиций в свою экономику. С 2007 по октябрь 2016 года было получено 6,923 млн. долларов США прямых инвестиций. Крупнейшими инвесторами являются Китай с его 3,364 млн рублей или 48,6 % от общего объема инвестиций и Казахстан с 1,446 млн долларов или 20,9 %.
6. Исходя из вышесказанного, современная Россия должна уделять особое внимание разработке политики в области миграции. В основе политики должна лежать концепция миграции как общего блага, а не катастрофы, что может быть предложением по дальнейшей исследовательской работе в будущем.
Работа аккуратна, лаконична. В проекте использованы различные виды авторских таблиц , анимационных эффектов, аудиоролик. Цитируемая литература, ссылки на исследования ученых ,занимающихся данной проблемой, представлены полностью.
Работа грамотная, содержательная, самостоятельная. Все сказанное выше позволяет сформулировать свое отношение к ней следующим образом: исследование в полной мере соответствует предъявляемым требованиям.
Учитель английского языка Костенко С.А.
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